There are certain rules or laws that govern the learning process. That is how students learn. And how do teachers teach? These simple rules or laws are applicable to all students, from primary level to college level. It is also applicable to any subject.
They support brain growth and development. Though these rules or laws are more for school teachers. They are also applicable to adults who wish to learn.
1. Rules or laws
- Effect: Students learns more effectively when they have a feeling of satisfaction. Pleasantness in the environment. Or reward is the part of the process.
- Readiness: Learning ability of students is more when they have the desire to learn. And those who do not have the desire they find it difficult to learn and find the topic uninteresting.
- Feedback: Students learn effectively when they get specific and immediate feedback on their completed task. Each student learning style should be taken into consideration.
- Involvement: Students learn best when they are involved and actively participate in what is to be learned.
- Emotions: The emotional involvement of the students will shape how much and how well they learn.
- Relaxation: When in relaxed and good mood students learn the best. They also remember what is taught, for a longer duration. When stress is reduced learning and retention increases.
- Association: When a new idea is compared to what is already known, students understand what is being taught.
- Exercise: Repeating the act over and over again, becomes a habit and can be retrieved more quickly. The information becomes more permanent and is easily remembered.
- Intensity: An intense feeling, enjoyable, enthusiastic learning experience is more likely to remember for a longer time. Boring and unpleasant will be forgotten soon.
- Relevance: Effective learning is closely connected to student’s life.
- Challenge: Students learn best with a variety of materials, challenged with something new, and a range of instructional strategies.
- Recent: Just before using it, if students practice the skill or new concept, it will ensure more effective performance.
- Expectations: Students reaction to directions depends upon their expectations related to the thing.
- Difference: There is a difference of way of learning between students. Some learn easily by seeing the picture or drawing, others by hearing or touch or feel.
These above rules or laws have been tested and are used in practical situations. They provide an insight into how students learn more effectively and can retain it in their mind. And this is how students learn and master the concept.
2. Aspects of learning
Learning and teaching occur in a constantly changing environment. Being related and woven together between each other. Like teachers, students, technologies, textbooks, study material etc. Learning and teaching have few aspects like –
- Understanding & knowledge
- Strategies & skills
- Independence & confidence
- Use of Emerging & prior experience
- Critical self-observation
The above elements are known as the aspects of learning. They have to be treated in a group, and not individually. They are interwoven among themselves. They are the basic elements.
And are a part of learning and teaching. These enhance students their learning through these aspects. They should be included in learning/teaching experience. Researchers find student-centered learning approaches help underserved kids achieve.
3. Perception and positive attitudes of learning
Teacher’s perception and attitude affect student’s ability to learn. When perception and development of positive attitude are made part of learning. Learning occur the best. Students think positive about themselves. They also think positive about their peers too.
- Regularly practice positive behavior in class.
- Form students in a group. Provide opportunity and let them form a team.
- The self-talk should be a positive one.
- Establishing a relationship with each student.
- To engage students to learn to use various different ways.
- Provide feedback.
- When a task is assigned, students should know their performance level
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4. Integrating and acquiring knowledge
Students gain new knowledge by relating it to prior experience and learning. And there are different types of knowledge that can be learned by students. By making the connection between what is to be learned and what is known different types of knowledge can be learned.
- Helping students to construct models.
- Inquire if students use a graphic organizer to organize information.
- With help of graphical organizer can students represent information.
- Point out pitfalls and errors.
- Helping students in setting up a practice schedule.
5. Refining and extending knowledge
Students should be given the opportunity to use their knowledge for practical purpose. This will make their knowledge effective, meaningful and fun. Activities should be designed in such a manner so they can they increase their understanding.
Some helpful school behavior and practice are comparing, classifying, inducing, error analyzing, summarizing, and the ability for analyzing perspective.
6. Using knowledge
If a student has an important goal and knows that to achieve it he needs knowledge. Then they learn in the best possible manner. Students can use knowledge meaningfully by thinking process. This thinking process helps students in many ways.
Like decision making, problem-solving, investigating and conducting an experimental inquiry.
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7. Productive habits
Students with the help of teachers can develop mental habits. That will enable them to learn on their own.
They can be developed by critically thinking (being open minded), thinking creatively (pushing the limits of one’s knowledge) and being self-regulated (being aware of one’s thinking)